(FAIRFAX, Va.) -- Women who exhibit "masculine" traits at work can be hurt by what researchers for years have called "the backlash effect." Research has shown women who have stereotypically masculine characteristics, like dominance and self-confidence, are sometimes sanctioned for behaving in ways that are incongruent with the feminine stereotype of supportiveness and submissiveness.
But according to a recent study, women who self-monitor their so-called masculine behavior use it to their advantage and get more work promotions than both men and other women.
"Masculine women who are able to turn on and turn off these masculine traits were more likely able to succeed above female counterparts and male counterparts," said Olivia O'Neill, assistant professor of management at George Mason University. The British Psychological Society has just published research by O'Neill and her co-author, Charles O'Reilly, a professor at Stanford's Graduate School of Business.
The two professors followed 132 business school graduates, 43 percent of whom were women. The professors first assessed the participants from 1986-1987, the first year of their two-year business school program. Then they assessed the participants again seven to eight years after graduation.
O'Neill said "masculine" women who were good at self-monitoring, or able to accurately assess social situations and project appropriate responses, received more promotions than others.
In fact, the results showed that "masculine" women who were high self-monitors received three times as many promotions as women who were low self-monitors. And assertive women who were high at self monitoring also received one and a half times as many promotions as "feminine" women, irrespective of whether those women were high or low self-monitors.
O'Neill said she tried to see if other factors contributed to the higher number of promotions, but none was as significant.
"We know everything about these people, like birth order and attachment style to their mothers," said O'Neill. "There are a lot of possible explanations that do not seem to be leading to this."
Copyright 2011 ABC News Radio
Entries in Promotion (2)
(SANFORD, Fla.) -- Buyers in the market for a new car are familiar with dealer promotions like zero percent financing or free extended warranties. But a truck dealership in central Florida has a "Buy a truck, get a free AK-47" deal, to the distress of some gun control advocates.
Nations Trucks in Sanford, Fla. began offering $400 vouchers last week for its truck buyers to redeem at a nearby gun store. The general sales manager, Nick Ginetta, said sales have tripled since the start of the promotion.
"First and foremost, we did this to coincide with our customer base," said Ginetta, who said his showroom displays deer heads and other hunting decor with its 4x4, diesel trucks and diesel sport utility vehicles. "My customers are sportsmen. They go hunting, fishing, and four wheel driving."
Ginetta initially scheduled the promotion to run until the end of November, but said he may extend it through the end of the year because of customer response.
Customers who want the semi-automatic firearm may redeem the vouchers at Shoot Straight, a gun store in the nearby town of Apopka. Ginetta said all customers must undergo a standard state and federal background check before doing obtaining a firearm. Instead of receiving a voucher, customers can also receive a $400 markdown on their truck, or purchase other items at Shoot Straight if they choose not to obtain an AK-47.
Ginetta said he chose to highlight an AK-47 weapon in part because of its controversy as a notoriously commanding weapon. Ginetta said he doubts he would receive as much media attention from local and foreign media if he had chosen a less contentious firearm such as a pistol.
"My obvious intention was to sell more trucks, but now it's a Second Amendment issue," said Ginetta, who is a firearm owner, though not of an AK-47.
The reaction to the promotion has been positive overall, but 20 percent of calls to the store are citizens concerned about safety, according to Ginetta.
The Sanford police department has not received any complaints, said Sgt. David Morgenstern, but he is alarmed that the redeemed guns could get into the wrong hands.
Copyright 2010 ABC News Radio