Entries in Myths (5)


12 Flu Myths Debunked

Pixland/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- Influenza, the dreaded cold-weather virus, was once believed to be brought on by the influence of the stars. Although that particular flu myth has been dispelled, doctors still battle other myths about the flu and its vaccine each season.

"Flu myth busting is the most difficult thing I do," said Dr. Len Horovitz, pulmonary specialist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City.

From how you get the flu to how you fight it off to concerns over the safety of the seasonal flu vaccine, there's a lot of misinformation out there that may leave people underprotected for flu season, experts say.

ABC News asked experts to set the record straight on 12 hard-to-shake flu myths.

Flu Fact and Fiction

'The flu vaccine can give me the flu.'

Verdict: False. Despite the continual urging by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that all Americans over the age of 6 months should be vaccinated against the seasonal flu, less than 50 percent of eligible people in the U.S. got vaccinated in 2011, according to CDC data. Much of this lag in vaccination rates stems from lingering fears over the safety of the vaccine.

This fear began in 1979, when live-virus vaccines were used and people did get sick from them, said Horovitz. "That was the start of people deciding they weren't going to get a flu shot," he added.

But today, injectable flu vaccine uses dead virus and "is made up of only parts of the flu virus, so it cannot in any way give you the flu," said Dr. William Schaffner, chair of preventive medicine at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tenn.

While the nasal spray variety of the vaccine uses a live, weakened virus, it can only multiply in the colder environment of the nose and can't give you the actual, full-blown flu. Sometimes people have a sore throat and runny nose for a day, but not the actual flu, Schaffner said.

One reason that this myth persists is that flu vaccine causes a brief fever in about one percent of recipients, which leads some to worry that they are actually getting the flu after getting the vaccine. But "these are very transient and rare reactions," said Schaffner, and do not indicate that the patient has the flu.

Another issue is that it can take several weeks for the vaccine to cause the buildup of enough antibodies in the body to become effective, "so it is quite possible to get the flu soon after getting vaccinated, which could lead to this misunderstanding," said John Barry, author of "The Great Influenza."

Flu Fact and Fiction

'The flu vaccine is dangerous, especially for pregnant women.'

Verdict: False.
The flu vaccine is given in the hundreds of millions of doses every year and is "extraordinarily safe," Schaffner says. Other doctors echo this sentiment -- that the flu itself is the threat, not the vaccine.

There are very rare risks associated with any vaccine, said Dr. Christian Sandrock, a physician and an expert in infectious disease at the University of California Davis Medical Center, but it's about weighing the benefits of vaccine against the risk.

"What is far more dangerous is taking the risk that you will get infected with flu if not vaccinated," said David Topham, co-director of the New York Influenza Center of Excellence. "Flu infection kills almost 40,000 people each year in the U.S. alone. Flu vaccine does not kill anyone."

Fears about the use of the flu vaccine by pregnant women stem from generations past, when women were advised against getting any vaccine while pregnant, said Dr. Greg Poland, director of the Vaccine Research Group at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn.

"This was because the vaccines a generation ago were live virus vaccines. Today, the injectable vaccine is just pieces of protein and there is no risk of getting the flu from it," he said. The nasal vaccine, which does contain live virus, however, is not recommended for pregnant women.

Getting the flu, and the high fever that accompanies it, is much more of a concern for pregnant women, Poland says, because high fever in the early stages of pregnancy can lead to certain neurologic brain defects in the baby. Hence, preventing flu infection with vaccination and getting early treatment is of the utmost importance for pregnant women.

Flu Fact and Fiction

'Young, healthy people don't need to be vaccinated because the flu is only dangerous for infants and the elderly.'

Verdict: False. Considering that those who are young and healthy generally fend off flu better than younger children, senior citizens and those with compromised immune systems, many believe that it's not that important for those at low risk of suffering flu complications to get vaccinated. But this couldn't be farther from the truth, according to Schaffner.

"The flu is a viral disease that can put you in bed and into the hospital very quickly, even in young, healthy people. Even if the flu only does this to one out of every 300 young healthy people, we can't pick those people out in advance, so we want to protect everyone," he said,

More importantly, widespread vaccination is critical to protect, not just you, but the people around you.

"Vaccines have two functions: they protect the person who is vaccinated, but also everyone around that person -- because the person will not spread the flu," Schaffner said. "And someone around that young, healthy person may have diabetes, or be elderly, or be a small infant, and you want to protect these people from getting sick."

Flu Fact and Fiction

'Getting the flu vaccine will completely protect me from getting the seasonal flu.'

Verdict: Not quite. The flu vaccine is only about 59 percent effective at warding off flu, according to a 2011 review published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases. Nevertheless, experts say the flu shot is still the best defense against the virus.

"While we hope and wait for a perfect vaccine, we've got a good one that's capable of preventing influenza and its complication," said Schaffner. "It can't prevent every instance, but it can prevent many. And that's a good thing."

Because the vaccine has its limitations, other methods of flu prevention such as hand washing and staying away from those who are sick are still very important. Regular exercise, getting plenty of sleep, and cleaning commonly-used surfaces at home frequently are also good ways to stop the flu in its tracks.

Flu Fact and Fiction

'If I already got the flu this year, I shouldn't bother getting vaccinated because I can't get it again.'

Verdict: Not quite. Often, there is a misconception that there is just one influenza strain that circulates in any given season. If this were the case, then getting the flu once would provide your body with the antibodies necessary to fight off that flu and prevent you from coming down with the flu again that season.

"If only this were the case," said Schaffner. Instead, there are hundreds of different types of flu viruses that circulate at any given time, so if you get the flu once, you only have protection from that specific type of flu.

In terms of vaccination, this means that just because you got the flu already, this doesn't meant that you should still get the vaccine. You are still susceptible to other types of flu and the vaccine offers the best, although not full-proof, protection against getting these other strains, Schaffner said.

Flu Fact and Fiction

'I got vaccinated last year, so I don't need to get the vaccine this year.'

Verdict: Definitely false. Again, there are hundreds of different strains of flu virus, and these strains change constantly. Every year, the vaccine is made by selecting the three most common types of virus that are currently circulating.

"That's why we need a new vaccine every year," said Schaffner.

For the same reason that getting the flu in November won't protect you from getting another strain in December, getting the vaccine for the strains of flu circulating in 2010 will not necessarily protect you from the types that will be circulating in 2011.

Scientists are working toward a stronger, more universal vaccine that could be a one-shot deal -- with the occasional booster.

Flu Fact and Fiction

'If I haven't gotten vaccinated by Christmas, there's no point.'

Verdict: False. While it's better to get the vaccination before the flu season peaks, that doesn't mean it's too late to protect yourself by vaccinating in January or February or even March.

"Flu peaks in February and early March, so there's still time to get vaccinated," said Schaffner, "but that's why I say jog, don't walk, to the drug store to get vaccinated today."

Flu Fact and Fiction

'Catching a chill by sitting near drafty window or going out in cold weather will make me get the flu.'

Verdict: Mostly false. Getting severely chilled to the point of hypothermia can make the immune system less resilient, which may make someone more susceptible to flu, doctors say, but you still have to come into contact with the flu to get the flu -- and getting a chill, in and of itself, is not going to do it.

Also, your standard amount of "chill" from a drafty window or going out with wet hair is not going to be enough to predispose you to illness, Schaffner said.

Flu Fact and Fiction

'Taking vitamin C or echinacea will prevent flu.'

Verdict: The data suggest false. Despite speculation that taking large doses of vitamin C or echinacea will protect people from flu, the data just aren't there to support them as flu-fighters, Schaffner said. There's some mixed evidence that these supplements will help fight off a cold, but when it comes to flu, these methods "strike out," he said.

Flu Fact and Fiction

'Taking antibiotics will fight the flu.'

Verdict: False. While antibiotics are sometimes used to control infection such as pneumonia that can accompany serious bouts of flu, antibiotics cannot treat viral infections like the flu.

Antiviral mediation such as Tamiflu and Relenza can fight off the flu virus, but even these can only shorten the duration of the illness, not resolve it altogether, Horovitz said.

Flu Fact and Fiction

'I should starve a fever, feed a cold.'

Verdict: False. This old adage may sound nice, but there is "no science to prove that it works," said Dr. Peter Katona, an infectious disease specialist at UCLA Medical Center. "You don't starve a flu, you need food and liquids for both [flu and cold]."

"Keeping up fluids is most important," Schaffner added, "and if you're hungry, keep it to simple foods to go easy on your tummy. This is not the time to get spicy Szechuan chicken."

Flu Fact and Fiction

'The flu is a normal illness, so I should just stay at home and ride it out.'

Verdict: Not necessarily. For most people who get the flu, staying at home and getting rest and plenty of fluids will be enough for their bodies to fight it off. But if your fever doesn't go away or your symptoms become severe, seek medical attention, said Schaffner. It doesn't matter how young and healthy you were a few days ago. Flu complications can become serious and antiviral medications or hospitalization may be needed.

Seeking immediate medical attention is especially important if you develop a headache and severe stiffness in your neck as this might be a sign of bacterial meningitis, not the flu.

Bacterial meningitis starts out with flu-like symptoms such as fever and achiness, but quickly the patient will become seriously ill, will be so stiff as to be unable to put his/her chin to the chest, and will be difficult to rouse from sleep, Schaffner said.

Bacterial meningitis can lead to brain damage, coma, and death when left untreated so any of these symptoms should not be ignored.

Copyright 2012 ABC News Radio


6 Tips and Myths About Lightning

iStockphoto/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- As the summer's crazy weather brought another weekend of deadly lightning strikes, this time at a Pennsylvania auto racing event, Americans are reminded of the myths surrounding the dramatic and dangerous spectacle of Mother Nature as well as tips to keep safe.

Severe weather left one NASCAR fan dead and nine injured this weekend after lightning struck behind the stands at Pennsylvania's 400 Sprint Cup Race at the Pocono Raceway near Scranton.

"When things started to clear up all we saw was a camping tent destroyed and two bodies on the ground," racing fan Kyle Manger told ABC News.

A severe storm warning had been issued about 45 minutes before the strike, and fans had been advised over the public address system and through social media to take cover.

Here are three tips -- and three myths -- about lightning, should you encounter a severe weather situation, with or without similar warnings.


1. Seek shelter in a large enclosed building. Lightning will travel through the wiring or plumbing of the building -- into the ground and away from you.
"Half the people that die from lightning strikes in the U.S. this year were standing under trees and the other half were out in open fields," chief meteorologist for KTRK, Tim Heller, told ABC News.

2. Do not use a corded telephone or anything plugged into the wall. Lightning can travel through wiring and plumbing -- so even if you're indoors, you must still be cautious.

3. Stay away from sinks, tubs and showers. And if going inside isn't an option, seek shelter in a car with a hard top. That way, even if the car is struck by lightning, it will travel through the metal of the car and down into the ground, away from you.


1. Lightning never strikes the same place twice. False! Take the Empire State Building for example -- it gets struck around 25 times each year.

2. If it isn't raining, you don't have to worry about lightning. That's not true either. Lightning can travel up to 25 miles from a storm. So even if the storm seems far away, lightning may still be a threat.

3. You're safer if you lay flat or get close to the ground. People used to think that getting low to the ground meant you were less likely to be struck by lightning. But that's not true either. It doesn't matter how tall you are, if you're not indoors, you're at risk.

So bottom line, go inside if you see lightning -- no matter how close you may think it is.

Copyright 2012 ABC News Radio


Is the Five-Second Rule Fact or Myth?

iStockphoto/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- Myth-Busters are back at it Friday night, shattering one more widely held belief. Did you ever hear about the so-called "five-second rule?"

It turns out the rule that says that food that is dropped on the floor is safe to eat if picked up within five seconds is a myth. Dr. Jorge Parada, medical director of the Loyola University Health System in Illinois, says that food dropped on the floor is contaminated immediately and cannot be sanitized.

Dr. Parada adds, though, that the amount and type of bacteria picked up depends on the object that is dropped and on what type of surface it falls. Some objects attract microbes more easily than others, he says, according to Health24. For example, Parada notes, a potato chip that falls on a table top that is fairly clean for a short second is less likely to spread bacteria than one that falls on the floor and is left there for a while.  Loyola adds that hard candy, too, is less likely to become contaminated than a slice of cheese.

Still, it is better to err on the side of caution and refrain from eating food under the five-second rule. Instead, Parada suggests a new rule: When in doubt, throw it out.

Copyright 2012 ABC News Radio


Top Five Myths About Arthritis Busted

Creatas Images/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- About 50 million Americans are living with some type of arthritis, but despite how common a condition it is, many people -- even some who are diagnosed with it -- hold beliefs about arthritis that experts say aren't true.

Misconceptions about who's most likely to develop arthritis and what foods sufferers should avoid are both common, along with several others.

Here are some of the long-held myths:

Only Old People Get Arthritis

"That is a really common one, and arthritis obviously doesn't happen only to older people," said Dr. Vivian Bykerk, assistant attending rheumatologist at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York.  "It can happen to 1- and 2-year-olds, it can happen to 90-year-olds and to anyone in between."

Data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention show that two-thirds of people with arthritis are younger than 65, and a recent study found that it affects nearly 1 in 250 children.

Certain Vegetables Can Make Arthritis Worse

Another common myth is that nightshade vegetables, which include potatoes, eggplant, peppers and tomatoes, can exacerbate arthritis symptoms.  The belief is that a chemical in these vegetables can cause too much calcium to build up in the body, damaging the joints.

But doctors say there's not a lot of scientific evidence to back up that claim.

"It's hard to study this relationship, but even though we don't know for sure, it doesn't look like clear evidence that these foods can make symptoms worse," said Dr. Joanne Jordan, director of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine's Thurston Arthritis Research Center in Chapel Hill.

There's Not Much People Can Do to Treat Arthritis

While there is no cure for arthritis, there are many available options to alleviate symptoms so people can lead normal lives.  The type of therapy that will bring on the most relief depends on the type of arthritis a person has, because health care providers may approach each condition differently.

Bykerk said there are more than 130 different types of arthritis, so the first step toward improving quality of life is to see a specialist and identify what type of arthritis a person has to determine the best treatment options.

Cracking Knuckles Can Cause Arthritis

Many people crack their knuckles because it helps their joints feel less stiff, but they may have heard it's a habit that could someday cause arthritis.

There actually have been studies that attempted to evaluate whether cracking knuckles increases the risk of developing arthritis.

"The studies didn't show any link, so we can't say there's any association between the two," said Jordan.

Exercise Is Bad for Arthritis Sufferers

It's definitely false that exercise can be harmful for people arthritis, say the experts.

"People become immobilized and tend to be inactive because of the worry they're going to hurt their joints," said Jordan.

"It's better to be active," Bykerk said.  "Studies have clearly shown that people that do their best to go on with their daily lives do better than those who lie in bed."

Avoiding activity can actually be harmful, she added, because it can lead to muscle loss.

Copyright 2012 ABC News Radio


Why Coffee Is Good for You, and Other Food Myths

Gerald Zanetti/FoodPix(NEW YORK) -- With all of the food fads out there, how can the average person sort out the truth?

In his latest book, Coffee is Good for You, health journalist Robert Davis demystifies the food research we read on a daily basis.  Should we take multivitamins?  Is red wine really good for you?  Will gluten-free make you feel better?

The answers are yes, no, and sometimes half-true.

“Animal research suggests that garlic may work by inhibiting the body’s production of cholesterol or decreasing its absorption in the intestines,” Davis writes. “But human studies have produced inconsistent findings.”

Other points Davis makes in his book include:

  • Coffee is high in antioxidants and there’s hardly any evidence that it’s harmful.
  • High fructose corn syrup isn’t worse than sugar.
  • Local food isn’t healthier than food from the supermarket.
  • The studies on farmed versus wild caught salmon are inconclusive.

Davis is also the author of The Healthy Skeptic. He teaches at Emory University’s Rollins School of Public Health.  

Copyright 2012 ABC News Radio

ABC News Radio