Naloxone: What you need to know about this lifesaving drug

iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- The opioid crisis has been front and center this week thanks to President Donald Trump's visit to New Hampshire, a state that has been particularly plagued by opioid-related deaths.

Drug overdose deaths are on the rise, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and in 2016, two-thirds of those cases involved opioids.

On Monday, Trump announced the Initiative to Stop Opioid Abuse and Reduce Drug Supply and Demand, a program whose main components aim to address the driving forces of the opioid crisis: Reduce demand and over-prescribing of opioids, cut off the supply of illicit drugs, and help those struggling with addiction.

One of the goals of the program is to ensure first responders are supplied with naloxone, brand name Narcan, a lifesaving medication to reverse overdoses.

Here's what you need to know:

What is Narcan/naloxone?

Naloxone, also known by its brand name Narcan, is a medication that quickly reverses an opioid overdose.

Opioid drugs such as heroin or prescription pain medications bind to brain receptors; in an overdose, the severe opioid effect slows breathing so much that death follows. Naloxone acts by competing with the opioid for those brain receptors, binding them and displacing the opioid. It will not stop overdoses from other kinds of drugs.

Who should get naloxone?

Anyone suspected or known to have an opioid overdose should be treated with naloxone. An opioid overdose is life-threatening because people can become unresponsive, breathe slowly or stop breathing altogether. If a person is not breathing, it will not hurt them to get naloxone.

How is naloxone given?

Naloxone is given in three ways: intravenously, injected into the muscle (think: an EpiPen style delivery) or a nasal spray. Individuals trained to administer naloxone can carry and give naloxone to a person having an overdose.

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Children more likely than before to draw scientists as women, study shows

iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- A scientist behind a beaker, usually with glasses, is often associated with men much more than women. But as more women enter into the sciences, researchers at Northwestern University uncovered in a surprising trend, more children are drawing scientists as women.

A landmark study that began in the 1960s looked at how children depicted scientists when they were asked to draw one. Only 28 of nearly 5,000 drawings showed a woman.

As time has changed stereotypes, female scientists have appeared in children’s media, magazines, television and even textbooks. They also appeared more frequently in the “Draw a Scientist” pictures each year.

A meta-analysis by lead author David Miller and his colleagues appears in the journal Child Development, including 78 studies and over 20,000 children in the United States. Compared to less than 1 percent of children who drew a female scientist before the 1980s, the average rose to 28 percent over recent years.

Data over the past 30 years on drawings by 6 year olds show 70 percent of girls and 83 percent of boys drew their own sex, consistent with what is average when a child is asked to draw a generic person. They have few preconceptions, it seems, about who “should” be in a science role.

As children grow older, however, both boys and girls drew male scientists more often. From ages 6 to 16, there is an increase in the number of male scientists drawn, to 82 percent from 54 percent. Girls switched to drawing more male than female scientists by age 11, and by age 16 draw three times more male than female scientists.

As more women go into sciences and the media shows them doing so, younger children are getting the message. They keep drawing scientists as female more than ever before. Perhaps more of their moms are scientists.

The authors of this study include David Miller, Kyle Nolla, Alice Eagly and David Uttal at Northwestern University.

This article was written by Dr. Hector M. Florimon, a third-year resident in pediatrics at New York Presbyterian-Columbia University Medical Center and in the ABC News Medical Unit.

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1 in 3 young adults ride with impaired drivers, according to new study

iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- “Designated Driver” is a well-known catchphrase and there are public service announcements aplenty on the dangers of driving while impaired (DWI). But what about riding with impaired (RWI) people?

Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and injury in the young, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Previous research has shown that impaired drivers are more likely to be male, have previous driving offenses, risky driving behaviors and troubled family backgrounds. But this type of driver will likely also have a history of riding with the impaired.

Researchers at Colorado State University and Colorado School of Public Health looked at data from the NEXT Generation study that followed a group of more than 2,000 teens (they began in 10th grade) from 81 schools across America as they emerged into adulthood. They looked at driving-related behaviors in relation to alcohol, marijuana and illicit drug use, with data from two years -- one year after high school and, again, two years after high school.

The survey asked, “How many times in the past 12 months did you ride with someone drinking alcohol,” asking again for marijuana and illicit drugs, like ecstasy or cocaine. Researchers also asked who was driving and if the students participated in binge drinking or used marijuana in the past 30 days.

One in three young adults reported being a passenger of an impaired driver at least once in the past year. To break it down further, 23 percent of drivers were marijuana-impaired, 20 percent alcohol-impaired and 6 percent illicit drug-impaired.

These drivers included older adults -- of concern because impressionable youth can “model” what they’ve lived, and driving with impaired adults at the wheel may influence their own choices as adults.

“Parents should be a role model by not driving while impaired, and real friends should stop their friends from driving after using substances -- if using substances cannot be stopped,” said author Kaigang Li, Ph.D., in a press release.

In the second year of the study, increased odds of riding with impaired people were highest with an alcohol-impaired peer driver (four times higher than the first year after high school), next to a marijuana-impaired older adult driver (three and a half times greater than the first year), an alcohol-impaired older adult driver (nearly three times), and a marijuana-impaired peer driver (slightly over two times).

Who was the most likely to choose to get in the car?

Young women were more likely than young men to RWI the first year that the study followed them. They found that 25.1 percent of young women said they were passengers in a car with an impaired driver compared to just 21.9 percent of young men. But it evened out the next year with 32.9 percent of young women opting to ride in a car with someone impaired, in comparison to 33.2 percent of young men.

Hispanics were nearly five times more likely to ride with an impaired illicit drug user the second year. Those not in college or attending community college were more likely to RWI than those in four-year colleges, and the same trend was seen in those that were unemployed or working part-time compared to peers with full-time jobs.

“These behaviors are not isolated, especially in young people. When one risk behavior is present, it can definitely influence other behaviors," said Li. “We want them to conclude that ‘friends don’t let friends engage in risky behaviors.’ If they know that their friends don’t do these risky things, they won’t do it themselves.”

Overall, the researchers hope their findings will encourage young adults to transfer what they’ve learned about not drinking and driving to not riding with a driver who’s "altered."

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Trump calls for death penalty for drug dealers but says country might not be ready, N.H.) -- President Donald Trump doubled down on his call for the death penalty for drug dealers in a speech in New Hampshire Monday, making the case that such a zero-tolerance policy would fix the nation’s drug problem.

“We have to change the laws, and we're working on that right now. The Department of Justice is working very, very hard on that. But the ultimate penalty has to be the death penalty," Trump said. "Maybe our country's not ready for that. It's possible, it's possible that our country is not ready for that,” he said.

“Although personally, I can't understand that,” he continued.

“You take a look at some of these countries where they don’t play games,” he said, not mentioning any by name. “They don’t have a drug problem.”

"We can have all the blue ribbon committees we want," Trump said, "but if we don't get tough on drug dealers, we are wasting our time."

As he talked about punishing drug dealers, a woman yelled out from the audience: “What about compassion?” Trump seemed to not hear it or ignore it.

A White House release on Trump's initiative said the Justice Department would seek the death penalty, "where appropriate under current law," against those convicted of dealing and trafficking in fentanyl and other opioids. Some experts have questioned whether the move would have much impact.

Four months after declaring the opioid crisis a public health emergency, Trump said he came back to New Hampshire because he'd promised during the campaign to help the state deal with its opioid drug problem, noting the state's death rate from overdoses is double the national average.

Trump's wife Melania introduced him saying she'd seen the effect of the "crisis" first-hand when visiting hospitals and treatment centers.

"I'm proud of this administration's effort to end this epidemic," she said.

Looking on in the audience were Attorney General Jeff Sessions and senior counselor Kellyanne Conway, who has taken the White House lead on the opioid issue.

While Trump's speech took place in 2018, it was in many ways a throwback to the 1980s when the “Just Say No” campaign was a leading effort to combat the nation’s drug problem. The president said it’s time again to scare kids away from drugs through a well-funded commercial campaign.

“It's the least expensive thing we can do, where you scare them from ending up like the people in the commercials. And will make them very, very bad commercials. Will make them pretty unsavory situations,” he said.

He also said he and first lady Melania Trump were introducing a new website,, where people affected by the opioid crisis can share stories. Other new policy goals include cutting overall opioid prescriptions by one-third over the next three years and urging Congress to get rid of an old law prohibiting Medicaid from paying for care at some treatment facilities.

Trump also related the opioid crisis to immigration, saying he will work to end sanctuary city policies and accusing Democrats of stonewalling progress on DACA because they want to stop construction of the border wall. There was a short chant of “Build the wall!”

“They don't want to go with DACA because they don't care about DACA, but they're trying to tie the wall to DACA and DACA to the wall,” he said.

Trump claimed 90 percent of illegal drugs come through the southern border. "Eventually the Democrats will agree with us to build the wall to keep the damn drugs out!"

Trump said he would “probably” hold a “major news conference” at the White House in about a month to discuss dealing with how prescription drugs contribute to the overall drug addiction problem but did not give any further details.

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100-year-old runner sets 5 new US and world track records

Rogers Family(DALLAS) -- A 100-year-old Dallas, Texas, runner continues to show the world that you are only as old as you feel.

This weekend, Orville Rogers won big at the 2018 USATF Masters Indoor Track and Field Championships in Landover, Maryland.

"How great it feels at the age of 100 to break five new world track records and to bring home the gold," he told ABC News on Monday.

In the 100 to 104 age category, Rogers set new records in the 60-meter, 200-meter, 400-meter, 800-meter and 1,500-meter events. And, he did it with his family cheering him on every step of the way.

The former World War II veteran was a bomber pilot who later became a commercial pilot. Rogers started running at the age of 50 and began competing in track meets when he turned 90.

Rogers, also the author of "The Running Man," said he trains every other day and runs three times a week.

Rogers, a widower, has four children, three of whom are still alive; 14 grandchildren; and 11 great-grandchildren.

"We're a very close family," he told ABC News. "We take family vacations every summer for 44 years now and we enjoy getting together anywhere."

In November, Rogers led partygoers as they collectively ran 100 miles at White Rock Lake in Dallas in celebration of his birthday.

"I live life with a capital 'L,'" he told ABC affiliate WFAA-TV in November.

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10-year-old boy with diabetes got a dog who monitors his blood-sugar levels

ABC News(ARLINGTON, Tenn.) -- Ten-year-old Eli O’Bryan gets companionship from his canine friend, Einstein, plus a lot more.

The black labrador helps to keep Eli healthy.

Eli was diagnosed at 4 years old with type 1 diabetes, a disease formerly called juvenile diabetes in which the body does not produce insulin.

Einstein is trained as a medical-service dog to detect when Eli’s blood sugar spikes or crashes, and to signal -- with a bark or by placing a paw on Eli -- when Eli and his family need to check his blood-sugar levels.

Before Eli got the dog, he had to wear a sensor that would monitor his blood sugar throughout the day, which he said was awful.

“[The sensor] was stuck in my leg with a giant needle and it hurt so much,” said Eli. “It beeped all the time and it malfunctioned.”

But no longer.

“Now we have Einstein,” Eli said.

A living dog over a technological device

The sensor Eli wore before Einstein was not only uncomfortable, it interrupted his education, sometimes beeping as many 12 times a day during school.

“He wore a pump all the time, he wore a sensor all the time," Amy O’Bryan, Eli’s mother, told ABC News. "We tracked him with an app through his sensor because he's so brittle that he has to be constantly monitored for him to stay functioning.”

But one of the worst things about the sensor is that it gave Eli more control over his blood-sugar levels, which meant he could hurt himself.

A mother's fear

“The scariest for Eli is when he was in fourth grade, he very calmly told me that he didn't want to live anymore,” O'Bryan said. “And to hear that as a mom and for him to be so casual about it, it was just matter of fact.”

Amy feared that Eli could harm himself with the devices and medicine he used to maintain his blood-sugar levels.

So she sought an alternative.

"That's really what started our journey with Einstein," O'Bryan said. "Not only was he suicidal, but he also wore a device on him 24-7 that would have made it very easy for him to end his life."

Amy reached out to CARES Inc., a non-profit based in Concordia, Kansas, that trains service dogs.

The organization works with a prison system that uses the dog training as a work program for the prisoners. And then, the dogs are sent to families to get used to being in a home and school setting.

A dog’s expert nose is what allows Einstein to be trained to pick up on Eli’s blood-sugar changes.

“They say it's actually one of the hardest things to train a dog to do because it's not a constant smell,” said Amy.

The waiting list for dogs from the organization is so long that Eli's family had to wait almost three years from when his mother first inquired before he was approved to get a dog. Even then, it wasn’t a guarantee.

“Eli has to certify that he can handle him in public,” explained Amy about the process of getting to keep Einstein after a week of training and bonding at the Kansas organization. “They have to show that they can handle them in restaurants or social situations …[Eli] was really nervous, ... we didn't want to leave without Einstein from Kansas.”

Eli and Einstein now

In October 2017, the O’Bryan family welcomed Einstein into their home, and Amy considers him another one of her children now.

“It helps having a dog,” said Eli. “Just in general, even if it's not a service dog. Just feels like having a best friend.”

Now, Einstein goes with Eli almost everywhere from school to band practice. The lab knows when it is time to be serious and work, but when the vest comes off, Einstein acts like the 2-year-old pup that he is.

”It's greatly impacted our life,” said Amy. “Just his quality of life, that he doesn't have to wear the sensor, I think it's helped me be more confident that Eli is independent and he can handle it.”

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High school football player who beat cancer says it was a team effort

ABC News(JENKS, Okla.) -- As a member of his Oklahoma high school football team, Jackson Lilly says he learned that success on the field depends on an all-out team effort.

Off the field, the 17-year-old junior at Jenks High School in Jenks, Oklahoma, has found that lesson also applied to his year-long battle with stage 4 lymphoma.

"Definitely when I got diagnosed, the whole football team was there," Lilly told ABC News.

He was diagnosed last March with Burkitt's Lymphoma, a rare form of cancer. He said he began feeling ill while on a spring break missionary trip to Guatemala, and initially thought he had contracted a stomach bug.

But when he returned home, his doctor found a mass obstructing his small bowel. On March 19, 2017, he underwent surgery to extract the mass from his small intestine and remove part of his large intestine and some lymph nodes.

"It's scary," Lilly said. "You're shocked and you don't really think it's real."

His teammates, coaches and entire school were there to support him every step of the way. Many football players even shaved their heads in solidarity when Jackson lost his hair while undergoing chemotherapy. Other students posted a video on social media of them yelling in unison, "We love you, Jax!"

After chemo, radiation treatments and seven surgeries, Lilly rejoined his teammates last week for spring football workouts, taking his first sprints on the field and pumping iron in the weight room, eager to make his comeback on the gridiron.

On March 12, a video posted on Twitter by one of his coaches went viral, showing a cancer-free Lilly ringing a bell in the school weight room, a ritual reserved for athletes who achieve their personal best. The footage shows him walking up to the bell as his teammates cheered, applauded and then mobbed him with back slaps.

 "That's the ultimate personal record for him," Jordan Johnson, Lilly's strength and conditioning coach who posted the video, told ABC News station KTUL in Tulsa.

Johnson said that even while Jackson was waging his battle with cancer, he stood on the sidelines during games to support his teammates.

"He was with us all through the football season, on the sidelines with no hair, going through chemo," Johnson said.

For Allen Trimble, head football coach of the Jenks High School Trojans, Lilly's fight was something he could relate to. Trimble, who has led his team to 13 state championship in 22 seasons, had endured his own battle with Lou Gehrig's disease in 2016 and almost retired from the sport.

"You and I both know what it's like to be in a tough battle," Trimble said in his own video tribute to Lilly. "You get to ring the bell in the weight room and that inspires me."

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Second lawsuit filed against fertility clinic with freezer tank malfunction

iStock/Thinkstock(SAN FRANCISCO) -- A second putative class action lawsuit against a San Francisco fertility clinic was filed Thursday by a California couple who say their embryos were destroyed by a freezer tank failure at the clinic.

The proposed class action seeks more than $5 million for hundreds of customers of Pacific Fertility Clinic, which experienced a failure in a freezer tank that houses patients' embryos.

“This is a tragic situation for the hundreds of couples who entrusted their dreams of becoming parents to Pacific Fertility,” said Adam Wolf, an attorney for the plaintiffs in Thursday's suit.

The suit, filed in United States District Court in the District of Northern California, states that Pacific Fertility patients received an email that their embryos may have been impacted when liquid nitrogen levels in a tank fell ‘below necessary levels.’ Plaintiffs are suing for the costs of medical procedures and embryo storage, as well as emotional damages.

"Their damages stem from this loss of precious property. Plaintiffs viewed the embryos as their future children," the suit says. "They have suffered extreme emotional distress and grief regarding the loss of their embryos, the prospect of suffering the extreme pain and extreme emotional distress from undergoing the process again (if they could afford it), and the fact that they may now not be able to have children in the future."

Wolf called the situation a "nightmare scenario."

“They thought they were doing the right thing by placing their trust in Pacific [Fertility],” Wolf said. “In a matter of minutes Pacific squashed their dreams.”

The lawsuit asks the court to certify the case as class action so other Pacific Fertility patients may join. Pacific Fertility did not respond to requests for comment on the latest lawsuit, but Dr. Carl Herbert, president and medical director at the Pacific Fertility Center told ABC News earlier that he had expressed condolences after the incident “for any of the discomfort or concerns that our patients have had from this really unfortunate incident.”

A similar putative class action against Pacific Fertility was filed Tuesday in federal court in San Francisco, alleging negligence, breach of contract and other claims.

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Bride honors late mother by wearing her wedding dress in now-viral photo shoot

Taylor Brooke Photography(CAMERON PARK, Calif.) -- One bride decided to honor her late mother with a photo shoot in which she wore her mother's vintage wedding dress.

As a child, Shelby Sander always imagined trying on wedding dresses with her mom. But when her mother, Angie, was diagnosed with stage 4 breast cancer in 2011, she knew she may not get the opportunity.

Despite not being engaged just yet to her then-boyfriend Scott Rogers, Sander, 23, scheduled a wedding dress fitting for March 12, 2011. Still, her mother would die just 11 days before.

"When she didn’t make it to that appointment, it really took a piece of me," Sander told ABC News.

Sander, who lives in Cameron Park, California, would eventually become engaged to Rogers, 24, last December.

"I felt like I needed to do something in some way to honor my mom," she said of the milestone moment. "So she could be here with me during this time."

Spontaneously, Sander decided to bring her mom's wedding dress to her engagement photo shoot, and take some photos of herself in her mother's gown.

"I wanted photos in my mom's dress as a way to honor her and symbolize my parents' relationship," she said. "Their marriage is being passed down to me and hopefully my sister when she gets married."

Sander said she learned a lot from the union between her late mother and her father, Curt. The two had been married for 26 years.

"My parents had the super, super picture-perfect marriage. They never fought in front of my sister and I. They never really fought in general," she said. "They just really demonstrated what a happy, healthy marriage is like, and that is something I hope to take throughout my future marriage with Scott."

Last month, Sander, her fiancé and photographer Taylor Rubio trekked to El Dorado Hills, California, for the shoot. The photographer picked the perfect location.

"It’s kind of located on the side of a hill. It was kind of cool. While we were out there, I remembered that they call it heaven," Rubio told ABC News of the shoot's location. "And she had decided to shoot here before thinking about wearing her mom's dress."

The now-viral shoot, which lasted less than two hours, went perfectly. Now, Sander can focus on honoring her mother at her rustic, outdoorsy wedding on Sept. 29.

Not only will she cut a heart-shaped piece of her mother's wedding dress to sew it onto her own, but she'll also plan a special tribute.

"We’re going to get a vintage chair and we're going to paint it purple, which was her favorite color," Sander said. "And we're going to put a note on it that reads, 'You’d be there if heaven wasn’t so far away.' She gets to be there."

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For kids who get their tonsils removed, age might matter more than weight, study says

iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- When kids are promised that after they get their tonsils out, they can have all the ice cream they want, it's actually a quiet way for doctors to fight post-surgical dehydration. But what other complications might await children, depending on their age and weight? And what can doctors do to avoid them?

That's what researchers involved in a new study wanted to find out.

"To our knowledge, this study represents the largest review of tonsillectomy complications in healthy children 6 years or younger," the research team at Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana, said in a statement.

Tonsillectomy is the second-most common surgery performed for children in the United States, with more than 530,000 procedures performed each year on children under the age of 15, according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology.

Amid the nationwide childhood obesity epidemic, researchers were particularly concerned about whether the children's weight might be linked to complications after their tonsillectomies. They also looked at their ages at the time of surgery.

The tonsillectomy procedure is usually well-tolerated and most children go home the same day as surgery -- and that’s generally what happened in the study. But there is a 5 percent rate of complications, which usually include difficulty breathing, bleeding, dehydration and lingering pain.

The study looked back at medical records of more than 1,800 children under 6 years old who had the procedures at six different medical centers in New Orleans between 2005 and 2015. Most of these children had a diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing or obstructive sleep apnea before their tonsils were removed.

About a quarter of the patients studied were under 3 years old, and these children had a higher rate of complications -- 7 percent vs 4.6 percent for older children.

One of the main reasons to keep a child overnight in the hospital is to monitor for these post-op complications. But that extra day in the hospital can lead to more missed school and work for the family.

One in four children under 3 years old had a complication within the first 24 hours following the operation. But for older children, only one in 10 had complications early on.

Did weight alone, in otherwise healthy children, indicate there would be more problems? Breaking down the numbers and types of complication by the children’s BMIs, researchers said the statistics showed that weight did not appear to be a significant predictor of complications in this study, regardless of age.

Overall, the researchers’ recommendation: Children younger than 3 years old need careful observation after a tonsillectomy, because they are more likely to have complications. But that excess weight in a child did not make them more likely to have post-surgical issues.

Dr. Hector M. Florimon is a third-year resident in pediatrics at New York Presbyterian-Columbia University Medical Center, working in the ABC News Medical Unit.

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