These gluten-free cookies are made from quinoa

ABC News(NEW YORK) -- If you're gluten-free, you just might go gaga for these new gluten-free cookies.

GoGo Quinoa makes gluten-free and vegan cookies from quinoa flour. The quinoa is sourced directly from Bolivia and all of GoGo Quinoa’s products are fully tested and certified NON-GMO, gluten-free, organic and kosher. They are also rich in protein, fiber and iron.

“This is the best quality of quinoa you can find out there,” Tamar Telfeyan, a company manager, told "GMA" at the Summer Fancy Food Show in New York City.

Over a third of Americans say they're on a specific diet this year, up from 29 percent in 2016, according to a recent Nielsen survey. Gluten-free diets have been a big trend and brands have been bringing products to market to cater to people with celiac disease or those who may have a gluten intolerance.

GoGo Quinoa’s quinoa cookies are individually wrapped and great to grab on the go or stick in a lunch box.

The best part is you can conveniently buy all these products on Amazon and the Canadian company is expanding to sell more products in the United States.Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


One mother's advice after she found lump while breastfeeding

Beth O'Brien(NEW YORK) -- When Beth O'Brien was feeding her 9-month-old daughter in 2017, she came across what she thought at the time was a clogged milk duct in her breast.

But after seeing doctors and undergoing exams, she would soon realize that her discovery was much more serious.

O'Brien, who works in a hospital, said she asked the lactation nurses at her job for tips to clear her clogged milk duct, but nothing worked. The 38-year-old mom of three then went for an ultrasound and, later, a biopsy which determined she had triple-negative breast cancer stage 2.

"Hearing cancer itself is pretty scary," O'Brien of Bennington, Nebraska, told "Good Morning America." "Researching it on the internet and seeing it was triple negative, which is an aggressive cancer that comes back, is an even bigger blow."

"[I had] more fear for my kids that I wouldn't be there for them," she added. "My kids are my number one. They were a blessing helping me through, and my two older boys were awesome and helping with their sister. We stepped up as a family and conquered it."

With the support of her husband and her three children, O'Brien underwent chemotherapy, a double mastectomy, more chemo and then 28 doses of radiation treatment.

O'Brien said she's now showing no signs of cancer and has a preventative hysterectomy scheduled.

Now, she's sharing her story in hopes women will perform more self-checks -- even if they're under 40 when rates of breast cancer are lower.

"I did breast exams every other month... not extensively," O'Brien said. "It's [a] blessing that I had my daughter and she was nursing at the time. I don't know [if] I would've discovered it if I wasn't nursing."

Dr. Roshni Rao, chief of breast surgery at New York-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center, said it's common for women under 40 to find their own cancerous tumors during self-exams since patients in that age group do not receive routine mammography.

Here are Rao's tips for self-examining your breasts.

How to self examine

Rao said to lie down on your back with one hand behind your head.

Move two fingers in a clockwise fashion starting around the nipple and continue around the entire breast area, one breast at a time and then the armpit area. Lead with one finger and follow with the other.

What you're feeling for

Really hard, fixed lumps that don't hurt.

"Things that hurt are almost always cysts and are benign, but things that don't hurt are almost always concerning," Rao said, adding that you will feel lumps and bumps no matter what.

"The main thing is to feel something different and you won't know that unless you intermittently examine your breasts," she added.

When to self-exam and how often

Rao recommends performing self-checks right after your period is over because that's when your breast tissue is going to be very calm and won't show nodularities due to hormone changes.

Rao suggests that starting at age 25, women should begin practicing self-exams. Women closer to the age of 40 should self-exam every two to three months and every month starting at the age of 40 is reasonable, she said.

"If you find something, watch it for one or two more weeks," Rao said. "If you're worried about it, we can check with an ultrasound."

Dr. Jennifer Ashton, ABC News' chief health and medical correspondent, said that skin changes in non-breastfeeding women like dimpling or indentation, abnormal nipple discharge, firm lumps, a sudden change in the nipple should all be discussed with a doctor.

For a breastfeeding woman, there are frequent changes in the breast -- the vast majority of which are not cancer. The bottom line is, "know your body," Ashton said.

"If you notice anything different, call your doctor [or] health care provider," Ashton added, noting that breast cancer is less common in young women but can occur and it's "better to be safe than sorry."

O'Brien agreed that women should be aware of their bodies and never be afraid to ask your doctor questions.

"If I can save somebody else or make them do something different in their lives then, by all means, I'll be out there to talk about it," she said.Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


The boys trapped in the Thailand cave could face an unusual disease


(CHIANG RAI, Thailand) -- As the rescue efforts for the 12 boys and their coach trapped in a flooded Thailand cave have continued, the world has been hoping for the entire group's safe return to the surface.

But after surviving the weather conditions, severe body stresses and unimaginable emotional distress of being trapped for days in dark, wet caverns, the 13 have more challenges ahead. All that time inside the caverns has exposed them to a dangerous and rare infection, often called "cave disease."

Officials said Tuesday morning local time at a press conference that at least two of the first four boys rescued are suffering from lung infections based blood tests, and all of them likely are infected though their tests are pending. However, none of them have a fever.

What is 'cave disease?'

Cave disease, also called speleonosis, is an infection with a fungus called Histoplasma capsulatum. It was first described in the 1940s as an “unusual” lung disease affecting a group of men camping in an abandoned storm cellar. The fungus is naturally found all over the world, thriving in settings ranging from the caves of Asia to the fertile riverbanks of the Mississippi River, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It grows in soil, aided by nutrients it gets from bat and bird droppings.

How is it detected?

Although Histoplasmosis is found in the environment, a person has to be tested to determine if they have the disease. Urine, lung, other tissue and blood samples can help detect the disease and X-rays or CT scans may also be needed.

In additional to physical exams, medical professionals will ask about personal health, travel history, including any time spent in caves, and symptoms.

How is it transmitted?

Anything that disturbs the ground like digging, or even just walking, can spread the fungus and the disease, according to the CDC. The fungus becomes airborne through its spores, which are so small they are undetectable to the human eye. It can then contaminate the air and enter the lungs of unassuming visitors.

Caves are known to be special breeding grounds for Histoplasmosis, with unique environments that can provide an ideal home for the fungus. With more than two million people each year exploring caves, or spelunking, it is becoming an increasingly common cause of infection.

Although the disease is transmitted via the air, it is not contagious from person to person. Some pets, like dogs and cats, can also become infected.

What are its signs and symptoms?

Detecting cave disease can be difficult and depends on many factors, including a person's baseline health and how much exposure he or she had to the fungus. A healthy person who’s been exposed may show no signs or symptoms at all.

Though most people exposed to Histoplasmosis don't get sick, those who do may look like they just have the flu with symptoms including fever, cough, extreme tiredness, chills, headache, body aches or chest pain. These symptoms usually appear between three and 17 days after a person breathes in the fungus.

A person with a weaker immune system, such as someone with uncontrolled HIV or undergoing cancer treatment, may develop more severe symptoms, such as confusion, as the disease spreads from the lungs to other parts of the body like the brain. Severe infections can cause death.

Treatment and preventing future cases

Cave disease resolves itself over time, without medication, for most people. However, for more severe symptoms or those with weaker immune systems, some antifungal medications may be required to treat the infection. Treatment can range from three months to one year.

Because the fungus is commonly found in many areas, it can be hard to avoid breathing in the spores. One way to decrease the risk is to avoid disturbing any surfaces with bird or bat droppings.

Anyone who chooses to explore caves can contact local cavers and public health departments to determine which caves are at higher risk for Histoplasmosis and consider wearing specialized dust-mist masks to minimize inhaling spores.

People with weakened immune systems should avoid cave exploring, which is considered a high-risk activity for them.

Petrina Craine is an emergency medicine resident physician in Oakland, California working in the ABC News Medical Unit.
Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


Trump responds to New York Times article on US opposition to breastfeeding resolution

iStock/Thinkstock(WASHINGTON) -- President Donald Trump Monday slammed a New York Times article about U.S. opposition to a World Health Assembly resolution encouraging breastfeeding.

Calling the story “fake news,” he tweeted, “The U.S. strongly supports breast feeding but we don’t believe women should be denied access to formula. Many women need this option because of malnutrition and poverty.”

The president’s tweet seems to mischaracterize the resolution, which was introduced in May and sought to encourage member nations to support breastfeeding.

The resolution spoke to the health benefits of breastfeeding and included ways that member nations can support mothers who want to breastfeed.

It did not encourage them to limit access to formula.

The New York Times reported Sunday that the United States “upended deliberations” by arguing in the interest of infant formula manufacturers. The Times also reported that the United States threatened Ecuador, which was planning to introduce the measure, with trade sanctions and the removal of military aid.

In the face of the reported threat, Ecuador dropped the resolution. It was eventually sponsored by Russia, which, the Times reported, did not receive similar opposition from the United States.

In response to the Times’ story, Health and Human Services spokesperson Caitlin Oakley said “recent reporting attempts to portray the U.S. position at the recent World Health Assembly as ‘anti-breastfeeding’ are patently false.”

“The issues being debated, were not about whether one supports breastfeeding,” the statement reads. “The United States was fighting to protect women’s abilities to make the best choices for the nutrition of their babies.”

The difficulties that mothers face in breastfeeding have been well documented. A 2011 Surgeon General’s report cited a lack of maternity leave, social norms, and embarrassment as barriers to breastfeeding.

The New York Times article addresses shock from both the international and public health communities at the reported U.S. action.

In an emailed statement, Georges C. Benjamin, the executive director of the American Public Health Association, said his organization was “stunned” by the report.

“Fortunately, the resolution was adopted with few changes, but it is unconscionable for the U.S. or other government to oppose efforts that promote breastfeeding,” the statement continued.

Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


'Wonder Woman' Gal Gadot makes surprise visit to children's hospital

Kelly Swink Sahady(FALLS CHURCH, Va.) -- Gal Gadot proved she really is wonder-ful after she took a break from filming the latest "Wonder Woman" movie to hang out with young patients at a children's hospital last week.

Gadot spent the day with staff and patients at Inova Children's Hospital in Falls Church, Virginia. During her visit, adorable photos were snapped of the actress and Karalyne Sahady -- a 7-month-old who has been battling leukemia during her five-month stay at Inova.

"I was in our room with one of our many doctors while Karalyne was hooked up to IV antibiotics, when in walked Wonder Woman, Gal Gadot, in full costume," Karalyne's mom, Kelly Swink Sahady, told "Good Morning America." "She had a huge smile on her face and walked right over to me. She asked if she could hold Karalyne and scooped her right in to her arms."

Sahady said she was "pretty star struck" by the encounter. Gadot's visit was a total surprise to the patients.

"I could tell her crew was in a hurry to keep moving, but she was not. She asked about our other kids and even brought in some toys for them," Sahady said.

"She did this out of the goodness of her heart, and that meant more than anything," Sahady continued. "We are Wonder Woman fans for life now."

A doctor who works at the hospital thanked Gadot on social media, tweeting, "You are a true Wonder Woman."Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


Searches on Google reflect dark reality for many women

iStock/Thinkstock(WASHINGTON) -- The battle over abortion rights may be at a turning point.

President Trump is expected today to announce his pick for the U.S. Supreme Court.

The new justice could potentially tip the court against abortion rights as he or she will replace retiring Justice Anthony Kennedy, who provided a key vote in 1992 to reaffirm Roe v. Wade, the landmark Supreme Court ruling that established a woman's right to abortion.

While Roe v. Wade remains in full effect at the federal level, restrictions enacted in some states make the ability for women to access abortion services largely dependent on where they live.

"In 2017, 58 percent of American women of reproductive age lived in a state considered either hostile or extremely hostile to abortion rights," said Megan K. Donovan, senior policy manager at the Guttmacher Institute, a Washington, D.C.-based reproductive rights research group. "It's very confusing that we have a constitutional right to abortion but how you actually are able to access that health care that you do [have a right to] depends on your zip code."

Online searches about self-induced abortion began to rise sharply in 2011 when there was an upswing in state restrictions on legal abortion, data scientist Seth Stephens-Davidowitz, who has studied internet search trends on self-managed abortions, told "Good Morning America." And the searches are most common in states with stringent restrictions.

In 2015, the state with the highest rate of Google searches related to self-induced abortions was Mississippi, according to Stephens-Davidowitz. Mississippi still today has one abortion clinic statewide.

“People tell Google things that they don't tell other people,” said Stephens-Davidowitz. “Many people may not admit to other people they are looking into a self-induced abortion.”

In one month-long period of 2017 there were more than 200,000 Google searches related to information on self-abortion, according to data from the Guttmacher Institute.

Self-induced, self-managed or self-abortions are all terms for when a pregnant woman performs an abortion on her own without formal medical care.

A "GMA" analysis of Google search data over the last five years, from 2013 to today, also shows search interest in self-abortion on the rise.Self-abortion today is different than pre-Roe v. Wade

Illegal abortions in the time before Roe v. Wade are sometimes referred to as coat-hanger abortions, a particular method of self-induced abortion.

And as recently as 2015, there were as many as 4,000 searches online for directions on coat-hanger abortions, of the around 700,000 Google searches that year about self-induced abortions, according to Stephens-Davidowitz's research.

But there are now methods for ending pregnancies not available before the Roe v. Wade ruling 45 years ago. Medical abortions, done through medication, accounted for nearly one-third of all non-hospital abortions in the U.S. in 2014, according to the Guttmacher Institute.

Medical abortion involves a pregnant woman taking two different medications, mifepristone and misoprostol, -- sometimes referred to as an abortion pill - under a clinician's supervision to end a pregnancy during the first 10 weeks. When the medication is obtained and taken by a woman on her own, without medical oversight, it is considered a self-managed abortion.

Medical abortion is legal under the supervision of a licensed medical professional, although some states have set restrictions.

Just over 30 states allow only licensed physicians, not other clinicians such as nurse practitioners or advance practice nurses, to prescribe the medication. And in 19 states, doctors providing a medical abortion must be in the physical presence of the patient during the procedure, limiting access, according to the Guttmacher Institute.

Through online searches, women may obtain the medications on their own, whether from a country outside the U.S. with fewer restrictions, from a website, or for another condition. Misoprostol on its own is used for several conditions unrelated to abortion.

“There is a tendency, especially in the context of a threat to Roe v. Wade, to hark back to the idea of the back alley and the coat-hanger abortion and a range of unsafe practices that we know were resorted to prior to Roe v. Wade,” said Donovan, of the Guttmacher Institute. “But we now have medication abortion and that is a safe and effective method.”

Guttmacher Institute research has found that misoprostol used by an untrained person is still safer than methods made infamous before Roe v. Wade, like coat-hanger abortions.

'Women don't know how to do this on their own'

Medical abortions pose serious risks though if not done with medical supervision, experts say.

Even under a doctor's care, medical abortions are associated with an increased risk of infection and can be associated with heavy bleeding and more cramping than a surgical abortion, according to ABC News Chief Medical Correspondent Dr. Jennifer Ashton, also a practicing obstetrician and gynecologist.

Ending a pregnancy without medical supervision can lead to infection and hemorrhaging or even an incomplete termination, in which the pregnancy continues despite attempts at termination, according to Ashton.

"The biggest [risk] is that they could miss an ectopic pregnancy," she said. "There could be a pregnancy that's not in the uterus that they don't know and if an ectopic pregnancy ruptures, women can bleed to death."

"When a woman has a positive pregnancy test, that doesn't necessarily mean that it's a normal uterine pregnancy," Ashton continued. "The whole reason that women normally go to an ob-gyn or Planned Parenthood is not just to tell them that they're pregnant ... but to follow blood levels of certain hormones and also to do an ultrasound to be sure that the pregnancy is in the uterus and not a life-threatening tubal pregnancy, which we call an ectopic."

Ashton said she has not heard firsthand of women medically terminating pregnancies on their own, but warned against such a practice.

"A lot goes into it and you can't just assume that a positive pregnancy test means a certain type of pregnancy," she said. "Women don't know how to do this on their own."

Ashton continued, "You can see this is not a DIY [do-it-yourself] type of thing."

The reality women face in states with growing abortion restrictions

Seven states across the U.S. currently have only one abortion clinic: West Virginia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming and Arkansas. That means women seeking abortions may need to drive hours to be able to access care.

In other states, like Texas and Arizona, a significant number of abortion facilities have closed in recent years, according to the Guttmacher Institute, which tracks the number of abortion clinics nationwide.

In 2011, Texas had 46 abortion clinics and Arizona had 15; since then, the number of clinics in each state has dropped to less than half that, according to Guttmacher, which last released data for all states in 2014.

"As a health care provider, Planned Parenthood has seen firsthand the devastating consequences for people in states like Texas, where politicians have restricted access to abortion," said Danielle Wells, assistant director, state policy media for Planned Parenthood Federation of America. "Women have been forced to travel hundreds of miles, cross state lines, and wait weeks to get an abortion, if they can access services at all."

She added, "These barriers often have a disproportionate impact on communities of color, who already face systemic barriers in accessing quality health care."

Women in Arkansas would be left with only one place in the state to get an abortion under a state law, now tied up in the courts, that would impose such strict regulations on medical abortions that critics say it would effectively ban them. Only one facility in Arkansas provides surgical abortions.

A 2017 study by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Guttmacher Institute found North America has among the lowest incidences of unsafe abortions, of which 25 million worldwide occurred every year between 2010 and 2014 worldwide.

The study's authors concluded that "restricting access to abortions does not reduce the number of abortions."

"In countries where abortion is completely banned or permitted only to save the woman’s life or preserve her physical health, only 1 in 4 abortions were safe," they wrote. "Whereas, in countries where abortion is legal on broader grounds, nearly 9 in 10 abortions were done safely."

The future of Roe v. Wade and abortion rights

While the next few weeks, perhaps months, may be consumed by a fight over filling the Supreme Court vacancy, what happens in statehouses across the nation will matter for women too.

“What we may see happen is that rather than overturning Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court can really gut that decision,” said the Guttmacher Institute's Donovan. “Abortion may remain technically legal nationwide, but the jurisprudence could change to really open the door even wider for any number of restrictions that just in effect mean that women have less and less access.”

"State legislatures may be all the more emboldened by the opportunity to further restrict abortion in the event that the Supreme Court opens that door even wider," she said.

If that proves to be true, the need for thorough and accurate information for women online will be critical, Donovan noted.

"People are turning to the internet for information about how to self-manage an abortion," she said. "Anytime someone is unable to find and rely on accurate information, then we know that their access to high-quality care is put further at risk."

ABC News Meghan Keneally contributed to this report.

Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


Study examines risks of physician burnout


(NEW YORK) -- Does your doctor’s mental health and well-being affect the care you receive? A new study says yes -- burnout, fatigue and depression may affect major medical errors.

Medical errors contribute to an estimated 100,000 to 200,000 deaths per year, according to the Institute of Medicine. Burnout -- defined as emotional exhaustion or depersonalization -- occurs in more than half of doctors, according to the study.

Researchers surveyed physicians across the country to understand the relationship between burnout and major medical errors in their careers.

Their findings, published in Mayo Clinic Proceedings, suggest burnout, by itself, plays a large role in errors. Other independent factors affecting errors include the perceived safety of the workplace, physician fatigue and physician mental health.

Researchers at Stanford University School of Medicine anonymously surveyed more than 6,600 physicians in active practice. They were asked to fill out standardized questionnaires looking at their levels of burnout, well-being, fatigue and symptoms of depression. In addition, the doctors were asked to grade the safety of their workplace and comment on any major medical errors they may have made.

Just over 10 percent of doctors reported making a major medical error in the three months before the survey, with about 1 in 20 of these errors being fatal. The most common mistakes were “errors in judgment,” followed by incorrect diagnosis and technical errors. Radiologists, neurosurgeons and emergency room doctors reported the most errors while pediatrics, psychiatrists and anesthesiologists reported the fewest.

Fifty-five percent of doctors reported symptoms of burnout, 33 percent had high levels of fatigue, and 6.5 percent had thoughts of killing themselves in the last year. According to the study, doctors have 3 to 5 times the suicide rate of the general public.

Medical errors are more than twice as likely if a doctor has signs of burnout, and 38 percent more likely if they have signs of fatigue. This was consistent even in workplaces with different safety levels.

“A physician with burnout in a work unit with a safety grade of A has similar rates of error as a non-burnout physician in a unit with safety-grades much lower,” lead author, Dr. Daniel Tawfik, MD, MS instructor of pediatrics and critical care at Stanford University, told to ABC News.

He further explained that the number of errors reported seemed directly related to the level of burnout.

“We looked at burnout on a scale. Even with one point changes on the scale, we could detect increased likelihood in reporting medical errors," he said. "It’s not just doctors on the extremes accounting for all of the errors.”

The study also looked at symptoms of depression, including thoughts of suicide. Doctors reporting medical errors are more than twice as likely to have had thoughts of suicide in the last year -- 13 percent compared to 6 percent. Whether depression leads to medical errors or medical errors leads to symptoms of depression is still unclear, but it seems to go in both directions.

“It appears burnout causes errors, and that errors cause burnout. Errors can certainly lead to physician depression,” explained Dr. Tawfik.

So is there any hope to use this information to help patients receive better care -- and help doctors as well?

“Largely, the great part of this problem has to do with the complexity of the U.S. healthcare system,” Dr. Jonathan Ripp, senior associate dean for Well-Being and Resilience at Mount Sinai Hospital and chief wellness officer of the Mount Sinai Health System in New York City, told ABC News.

Mount Sinai Health System is one of a handful of hospitals that have named a “wellness officer” in charge of tackling physician burnout.

Paperwork and electronic issues add to doctors' stress, too, Ripp said. Systems issues include “inefficiencies of the electronic health record, complexities of documentation requirements mandated by CMS, and responsibility placed on the physician to complete tasks that are better achieved by team-based care," Ripp said.

"For every one hour a clinician spends with a patient," he added, "they spend two hours with documentation or desk work.”

Many hospitals now have physician wellness programs, which focus on remedies like mindfulness. While helpful, these solutions can act like a “Band-Aid” when there are larger systems issues at play, Ripp added.

“We need to manage expectations, and this takes time," he said. "By making system and individual level changes, the result should be greater meaning derived from work and less burnout.”

The researchers hope to study what can be done to solve this problem as a follow-up. They are starting to evaluate resiliency tools that can be used for doctors, and are trying to better understand the organizational causes of burnout.

Dr. Michael MacIntyre, M.D., is a psychiatry resident working in the ABC News Medical Unit.

Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


A non-alcoholic wine water tastes just like the real deal

Wine Water Ltd.(NEW YORK) -- An Israeli company just launched a game-changing beverage that tastes like wine but is non-alcoholic.

According to Adi Seifert, chief technology officer of Wine Water Ltd., O.Vine “is a natural beverage that’s actually an infusion of grape skin and seeds that are left over from the win making process.”

O.Vine is made from the part of the grape that would normally go to waste during the wine making process.

Not only is O.Vine non-alcoholic but it also has zero preservatives and is low in calories.

It has the same antioxidants in wine but without the alcohol content.

"O.Vine is the perfect match for people that cannot drink alcohol and actually for people that don’t drink water," Wine Water Ltd. CEO Anat Levi told "GMA."

Wine Water Ltd. features four different types of O.Vine including white and red carbonated and non-carbonated versions.

Seifert said there’s nothing on the market like O.Vine.

“This is a completely new category,” he said.

Wine Water Ltd. recently launched this product at the Summer Fancy Food Show in New York City and the company hopes to bring O.Vine to a store near you soon.Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


Long term consequences with childhood trauma


(NEW YORK) -- Trauma in childhood echoes through generations, according to new research that could have implications for thousands of migrant children recently separated from parents at the U.S. border.

The study, conducted by researchers at the University of California at Los Angeles and published today in Pediatrics, finds that traumatic events in childhood increase the risk of mental health and behavioral problems not just for that person but also for their children.

“Early-life experiences -- stressful or traumatic ones in particular -- have intergenerational consequences for child behavior and mental health," the lead author, Adam Schickedanz, clinical instructor in pediatrics at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, told ABC News. "This demonstrates one way in which all of us carry our histories with us, which our study shows has implications for our parenting and our children's health.”

Asked by ABC News how the research may relate to the more than 2,000 children recently separated from their families after crossing the U.S. border, Schickedanz said all families who participated in the study were from the U.S. but that evidence suggests the effects of adverse childhood events "take a toll in large part as a result of toxic stress responses that appear to be universal, since they have been demonstrated across families from diverse backgrounds."

The researchers looked at the effects over a generation when a child grows up in an unstable environment, suffers neglect or has absent parents. "Based on the available evidence, one would expect that the stresses and trauma children are experiencing due to family separation at the border will have intergenerational behavioral health consequences," Schickedanz said.

The study used a national sample of families from previous research -- parents who had participated in a 2014 Child Development Supplement and 2,529 of their children who had complete data in the 2014 Childhood Retrospective Circumstances Study.

The severity of a child's behavioral issues was measured through a scale called the behavior problems index. Researchers gave the primary caregivers of children ages 3 to 17 years old a series of questions to assess present problems, including with anxiety, depression, dependency, hyperactivity, and aggression.

The study found a link between children with a high rate of behavioral problems and parents who had experienced a greater number of adverse childhood events, ACEs.

Parents who growing up suffered four or more adverse events before they were 18 -- including neglect, abuse and household dysfunction -- were more likely to have children with behavioral issues, such as being hyperactive or having problems regulating their emotions, the research found.

Among the group studied, one-fifth of the parents had four or more traumatic experiences as children.

The researchers also found that a parent's gender was a factor in the outcome of the child. Children's outcomes were more negatively affected when it was their mothers, rather than fathers, who suffered trauma as children. Researchers explained this by noting that mothers are more often the primary caregivers.

This is the first study showing a correlation between adverse events in childhood and outcomes for the children of those who suffered the original trauma, and the researchers don’t want to stop there.

“Right now, we are exploring whether these intergenerational [adverse event] associations persist across more than one generation. In fact our study team's next step is to examine whether grandparents' [adverse childhood events] can be linked to their grandchildren's behavioral health.”

While this study focused on the behavioral consequences of traumatic childhood experiences, other research has shown that adverse childhood events affect physical health, increasing the risk of chronic disease and premature mortality later in life.

Denise Powell, M.D. candidate, is a student from Jackson, Mississippi, working in the ABC News Medical Unit.

Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


Divers came to 'risk their lives' to save boys trapped in a Thailand cave

Chiang Rai Public Relations Office(CHIANG RAI, Thailand) -- They came from all over the world, willing to risk their lives.

The international rescue effort to save a dozen teenage boys and their soccer coach has drawn dozens and dozens of the world’s most elite rescue divers –- 50 from foreign countries and 40 from within Thailand, each all too aware of the danger they could be facing.

The contingent of rescuers includes a team of Thai Navy SEALS, a highly-trained corps of emergency operatives willing to trade their lives for those of the trapped teenagers.

“SEALS are used to going in and risking their lives for others’ lives,” Don Mann, a former U.S. Navy SEAL, told ABC News.

The acronym stands for "Sea, Air and Land," representing the different environments in which SEALS are trained to operate.

“They do that all the time," Mann said. "That’s why they sign up. Even when they’re training they are risking their lives -– that’s how rigorous the training is.”

The divers were all drawn to northern Thailand to join the massive rescue operation to extract the Wild Boar teammates and their coach from Tham Luang Nang Non, the country's longest cave. They had been trapped in the mountainous cave in Chiang Rai province since June 23.

The Thai cave rescue -- even for the most highly-trained divers -- is daunting.

“Even if you’re a Navy SEAL diver, or a civilian diver and you go through rescue training, it doesn’t even scratch the surface of what they are trying to accomplish during this rescue," said Mann, author of “How to Become a Navy Seal: Everything You Need to Know To Become a Member of the US Navy’s Elite Force.”

“These guys are highly-trained but these poor young kids -– what they have to do, to learn in a very short amount of time is to learn to swim and scuba dive," he said.

"And they’ll have two rescue divers along each side of each of the boys, but they’ll be swimming through tight, tight narrow spaces and black passageways that," he said, pausing to find the right word. "You get very claustrophobic.

"It’s a very terrible feeling,” he added.

The team rescued four of the boys Sunday, and were preparing for the second phase of the daring mission in several hours. Before the mission, some rescuers shared a photo on Facebook linking arms, with the message, "We, the Thai team and the international team, will bring the Wild Boars home," a reference to the soccer team's name.

But the recent death of a former member of the Royal Thai Navy inside the cave who was working as a volunteer rescuer was an emotional blow to the operation.

Saman Gunan lost consciousness underwater during an overnight operation delivering extra air tanks inside the cave, along the treacherous route divers take to get to the trapped soccer team. He could not be revived and was confirmed dead early Friday morning.

Gunan, 38, formerly served in the Royal Thai Navy’s Underwater Demolition Assault Unit, colloquially known as the Thai Navy SEALs. His death marked the first fatality in the operation to rescue the group and underscored the dangers of navigating through the cave underwater, even for those who have experience.

Gunan's body was sent back to the naval base in Sattahib district, where the king of Thailand has ordered a funeral to be held with full honors, according to Thai officials.

Rescuers like Gunan are generally brave, selfless people to begin with, Mann said.

“They are people who have character,"he said, "who go in [to a rescue operation] with the notion that what they’re going to do is risk their lives to get to save others’ lives.”

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