Beverly Hills votes unanimously to ban most tobacco sales

iStock(BEVERLY HILLS, Calif.) -- The City Council of Beverly Hills, California, voted unanimously on Tuesday to ban almost all sales of tobacco products, beginning in 2021.

Cigarettes, cigars and e-cigarettes will no longer be sold at gas stations, pharmacies, convenience stores or by grocers, according to official reports.

Exempted from the ban are hotels and three cigar lounges in the tiny Los Angeles suburb. The ban is the first of its kind in the U.S. 

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 249 billion cigarettes were sold in the U.S. in 2017, a 3.5% decrease from 2016. About 12 billion cigars were sold in 2015.

Illnesses related to smoking incur costs of more than $300 billion annually, according to the CDC. About $170 billion is spent on direct medical care, with approximately $156 billion lost in productivity -- including $5.6 billion solely because of second-hand smoke.

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Why Jessica Alba goes to therapy with her 10-year-old daughter

Jon Kopaloff/FilmMagic(LOS ANGELES) -- Jessica Alba wants her 10-year-old to feel like she can talk to her.

At a conference over the weekend, the Honest Company founder and actress told an audience that she and her eldest daughter, Honor, go to therapy together.

Alba, 38, a mother of three, said the experience has helped her "learn to be a better mother to her and communicate better with her."

Alba revealed at the Her Conference in Los Angeles that being honest about her feelings did not come naturally. She described a childhood in which her family would often rely on priests for help, but she prefers the help now of a professional therapist.

"I didn't grow up in an environment where you talked about this stuff," she said. "It was just like, 'Shut it down and keep it moving.'"

"I find a lot of inspiration just in talking to my kids," she added.

Alba's three children with her husband, film producer Cash Warren, are Honor, 10, Haven, 7, and Hayes, 1.

The actress, who is currently starring in the new police series, L.A.'s Finest, told ABC News' Good Morning America that she joined the show after her co-star, Gabrielle Union, helped the set become mom-friendly while Alba was breastfeeding her third child.

"And so we have a set that's family friendly and it's awesome," Alba said, noting that her kids also come to work with her at the Honest Company.

"I created an environment where my kids are a part of my life and my workday," she said.

Rachel Simmons, the bestselling author of Odd Girl Out, said Alba has done a service to not just her kids but "moms everywhere" by going to and talking about therapy.

"I think what Jessica Alba is doing is saying, 'Listen, I didn't get the same parenting experience as a child that I want to give my own child, and I don't have the tools to do that, so I'm going to go for help to get them,'" Simmons told GMA.

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FDA tests highlight rising concerns about potentially harmful chemicals in food

iStock/Lisovskaya(WASHINGTON) --  Government tests have found high levels of potentially harmful chemicals used in nonstick surfaces and firefighting foams in foods that are produced near contaminated sites, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

The latest research, presented at a conference in Helsinki and circulated among advocacy groups, highlights the growing concerns by the government and American consumers about the substances found in groundwater and soil around the country.

The FDA said the study isn't cause for alarm, but confirmed that food grown near sites contaminated with "PFAS" chemicals, such as airports, military bases and manufacturing facilities, should continue to be monitored because the chemicals can leach into the food through soil or water.

"While FDA testing to date has shown that very few foods contain detectable levels of PFAS, due to potential health concerns related to these chemicals, the FDA is working to better understand the potential dietary exposure to PFAS," the agency said in a statement released Tuesday.

PFAS chemicals are often referred to as "forever chemicals" because they last a long time in the environment and research in recent years has raised alarms about the potential health impacts. The government is still working on how to respond to the chemicals that have made their way into drinking water, groundwater, and the blood of most Americans.

There are no specific regulations around the amount of PFAS allowed in food, but current guidelines from the Environmental Protection Agency say amounts above 70 parts per trillion could pose a risk for human health. Research has connected some types of the chemicals to hormone problems, thyroid disease, and some cancers.

The recent FDA study examined dairy and produce, particularly milk and leafy greens, developed near sites known to be contaminated by PFAS and found several cases in which the chemicals were detected. In one case, milk from a dairy farm near Cannon Air Force Base in New Mexico was discarded because the levels of PFAS were so high.

A sample of chocolate cake from a grocery store also found high levels of the chemicals, although the FDA presentation did not identify a potential source of the chemicals. Advocacy groups say it could have come from grease proof paper.

The study results, obtained by the Environmental Defense Fund and the Environmental Working Group, were first reported by the Associated Press.

 EPA has announced an action plan to look into stricter regulations on the amount in drinking water and cleanup standards for groundwater. The agency has also pushed for more research on PFAS after reports that the cows near Cannon Air Force Base had been exposed to the chemicals.

In response, EPA Administrator Andrew Wheeler called for more research on the level of these chemicals in the food supply, according to a memo from last month obtained by ABC News.

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Boy battling brain condition gets custom-made doll with surgery scars just like him

Kristin Haynes(SEBRING, Fla.) -- A 5-year-old boy in Florida who is battling a life-threatening brain condition received a touching surprise on the last day of the school year.

More than 100 second-grade students at Cracker Trail Elementary School in Sebring, Florida, surprised Payton Haynes with a custom-made doll that features his same surgery scars.

"He said, ‘He looks just like me,'" Payton's mom, Kristin Haynes, told ABC News' Good Morning America. "He loved it, and the first thing he did was take the doll's shoes off because Payton doesn't like to wear shoes."

Payton has a nearly five-inch-long scar on the back of his skull and a scar on his abdomen because of two brain surgeries, according to his mom.

He underwent his first brain surgery at three months old to treat craniosynostosis, a birth defect in which the bones in a baby’s skull join together too early, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Payton also underwent a nine-hour brain surgery last December in which he had a brain shunt put in to treat hydrocephalus, a condition in which there is excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Payton has been out of school since last November. Over the past months, the second-grade students at Cracker Trail Elementary School, which Payton does not attend, raised nearly $500 through fundraisers.

They decided unanimously to donate the money to help a child with a serious illness, according to their lead teacher, Liz Prendergast.

The school reached out to a local charity and they were matched with two families, one of which was Payton's. His mom told the school, where she used to teach, that she wanted to use the money for a doll for Payton.

"For my little boy, there is nothing out there that just looks like him," Haynes said. "I thought it’d be amazing for him to look down and see something that reflects himself."

The school called Amy, a mother of three in Wisconsin who makes custom dolls for kids through her non-profit, Doll Like Me.

Jandrisevits has a long waiting list for the dolls, but when she heard Payton's story, she made a doll for him in one weekend and sent it overnight so the students could present it to him in person.

"This is a big deal, and the fact that these kids did this is remarkable," she said. "These kids learned what true empathy and what true kindness is. If you want to see true kindness, it looks like the face of a doll."

The second-grade students' faces "lit up with excitement" when they presented the doll to Payton last Friday, according to both Pendergrast and the school's principal, Rick Kogelschatz.

"In our school announcement every morning we say to the kids, 'What you are doing today is important. You can do it. We will not give up on you,'" Kogelschatz said. "What the kids did [with Payton], they lived out those words. It was them following through on that."

Jandrisevits said she was especially touched to learn that Payton has named his doll "Little Payton" and takes it with him to his doctor appointments.

"That’s exactly it. That's the whole essence of this doll-making," she said. "Kids should be able to look into a doll and see the themselves. When they name it after themselves, it proves the point."

Haynes and her husband plan to use the doll to help educate Payton's classmates and friends. The family has become ambassadors for raising awareness of hydrocephalus and the severity of Payton's condition, in which something as seemingly simple as a headache could mean another surgery for him.

"Payton will go to school and it’s much easier to take a doll with us and say, ‘Hey, Payton has had some big surgeries under his hair and that may be why he can’t play contact sports or has to leave for a doctor’s appointment,'" said Haynes. "A lot of this for us moving forward is going to be teaching him to be an advocate for himself and educating other people."

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After their dad died in need of a kidney transplant, sisters donate their kidneys to strangers 

Courtesy Bethany Goralski(NEW YORK) -- After their father died while in need of a kidney transplant, two Illinois sisters each donated their kidneys 24 hours apart to total strangers to make sure two other families didn't have to suffer the way theirs did.

"I hope he would be really proud," Bethany Goralski, 25, of Chicago, told ABC News' Good Morning America.

After a long battle with Crohn's disease and kidney failure, their father, Mark Goralski, passed away in September of 2018. Bethany Goralski said she was prepared to donate her kidney to her father -- who had already underwent a transplant in 2011 -- but doctors "told us at the time he wasn't healthy enough for a transplant."

"We just want to make sure two less families had to go through what we went through," Bethany Goralski said.

Her sister, Hannah Goralski, 24, said that she also decided to give the gift of life to a stranger after her father's death.

"You are just in a lull and a loss and you’re thinking about what am I going to do to stop thinking about this person," Hannah Goralski told GMA.

"My dad was always giving, he was always helping others," she added. "And I thought what a great way to honor him."

"Knowing a lot of people who have been affected by organ transplant, it felt selfish to keep my kidney," she said.

Hannah Goralski said that she called Northwestern Memorial Hospital about a month after her father passed away, and the sisters underwent the surgeries about a day apart in March 2019.

Knowing that she potentially saved a life, "definitely feels amazing," Hannah Goralski said.

"I am definitely in my prayers every night and thinking about the people that received my kidney," she said. "And thinking about the possible chain that this started."

Hannah Goralski added that she believes if her father "was in this position, I think he would have done the exact same thing, he was always helping others."

"I know he would be proud," she said.

Bethany Goralski said she would encourage healthy young people to become organ donors.

"I would tell them to do it, I don’t regret it one bit," she said. "We’re young and healthy, so my recovery was only about 10 days."

Hannah Goralski added that "the age I did it was very ideal."

"I’ve never had any major health issues," she said. "I’ve only ever had my wisdom teeth removed so this was my first surgery ... I felt like I bounced back very quickly."

She acknowledged that while there are "definitely risks for women like preeclampsia ... all women are at risk for that anyway."

"I thought why wait, if someone's dying now and I can help them now, hopefully by then when I'm older I'll look back and say, 'I'm glad I didn’t wait," Hannah Goralski said.

Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


Teen's leg amputated after North Carolina shark attack: 'I will continue to stay positive'

Eifel Kreutz/iStock(ATLANTIC BEACH, N.C.) -- A 17-year-old girl whose leg was amputated after a shark attack is vowing to remain "positive and be thankful that it was not worse."

Paige Winter, who was attacked in Atlantic Beach, North Carolina, on Sunday, said in a statement on Monday, "Although I have extensive injuries, including an amputated leg and damage to my hands, I will be okay."

"I know I have a long road to recovery, which includes additional surgeries," Winter said in the statement released by the Vidant Medical Center. "I will continue to stay positive and be thankful that it was not worse."

Paramedics responded to the Fort Macon State Park just after noon on Sunday, finding the teen with deep lacerations to her leg, pelvic and hand areas, said the Atlantic Beach Fire Department.

The hospital on Sunday said the teen was in good condition.

"Despite this unfortunate circumstance, Paige is an unwavering advocate for the marine life and the animals who live in the water," hospital officials said in a statement on Sunday. "She wishes for people to continue to respect sharks in their environment and their safety."

Winter's attack came days after a 65-year-old California doctor was killed by a shark while swimming in Hawaii.

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Lifesaving innovations for the most vulnerable newborns

AndyL/iStock(NEW YORK) -- What it believed to be the world’s smallest newborn baby to survive entered the world nearly four months earlier than planned, weighing 8.6 ounces – about the size of a juice box.

Baby Saybie was born at the Sharp Mary Birch Hospital in San Diego. She was transferred to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), where care is given to newborns who need special attention, and finally sent home after 5 months of treatment.

Premature babies like Saybie, who were unlikely to survive if they were born just a few decades ago, are thriving thanks to advances in modern medicine.

Dr. Jonathan Blau, a neonatologist at Staten Island University Hospital, told ABC News that the NICU usually handles the monitoring and treatment of newborns who are at risk for survival. A NICU team usually consists of a neonatologist, a specialized nurse, and a respiratory specialist who arrive and prepare a baby warmer even before the baby is delivered. When the baby is born it is taken to a warmer where heat and oxygen are provided.

Very small premature babies like Saybie are usually hooked up to a tube connected to a breathing machine, and a team constantly monitors their heart rate and blood pressure. “They also get medicines, hydration through IVs, x-rays, and antibiotics,” said Dr. Blau.

All babies undergo dramatic body system changes after birth. Some of these include breathing on their own, changes in the heart structure and direction of blood flow in large vessels. Healthy babies born after 9 months of gestation typically do not need medical help to go through these changes. But premature babies or those with health problems can have difficulty making that transition into the world.

Survival rates for premature babies vary based on the length of pregnancy, weight and sex of the baby, and whether they received a specific medication to help quicken their lung maturity before birth.

A developing fetus goes through important growth throughout pregnancy, including in the final months and weeks, according to the CDC. For example, the brain, lungs, and liver develop during the final weeks of pregnancy. Babies born too early, especially before 32 weeks, have higher rates of death and disability. In 2015, preterm birth and low birth weight accounted for about 17 percent of infant deaths.

According to Dr. Blau, preemies born at 24 weeks now have a 50 percent chance of survival. That chance goes up with increasing gestational age. Once the fetus reaches 28 weeks, over 90 percent of preterm babies survive.

It has been standard to provide lifesaving treatment to a baby born at 24 weeks, according to Dr. Blau, but now doctors are using new technology to try to save babies born ever earlier in some cases.

Major improvements and specialization in the past 50 years

Care for premature babies has developed immensely over the last few decades, and it’s hard to believe less than a century ago, preemies were sent home with their parents, often with no medical intervention.

The first American NICUs providing specialized newborn care were designed in 1960s by Dr. Louis Gluck, around the same time doctors were learning more about the spread of infection.

Dr. Gluck’s research showed that bathing babies and washing hands reduced the number of bacterial infections. His discovery transformed the NICU layout from babies isolated in cubicles to one large room filled with newborns in their incubators.

In the 1970s, doctors discovered the benefits of mothers holding their babies after giving birth. Dr. Heidelise Als, a specialist in newborn infant behavior, created the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP), and encouraged family involvement and individualized care plans for each baby.

Families began staying overnight in the hospital, and were encouraged to participate in “skin to skin” bonding, sometimes also called “kangaroo care,” where the baby is held closely or placed on the mother’s chest to maximize skin contact. Increased skin contact in the NICU has many benefits for the baby including reducing stress levels, helping with growth, controlling the heart rate and regulating breathing.

Technology to better treat premature babies continues to be developed today. Earlier this year, a team of scientists at Northwestern created and are testing soft, flexible wireless sensors for babies to monitor their vital functions, replacing long cords, and found that they were just as accurate and allowed better parent-child interaction.

“We have more sophisticated ventilators that have allowed some of the smallest babies to survive,” Dr. Blau said.

With a growing base of professional knowledge about neonatal care and constant improvements in technology, Dr. Blau thinks the future is bright.

“In addition to lifesaving care for our youngest newborns, we will strive to maximize developmental outcomes so these children can live happy and healthy childhoods.”

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Kentucky toddler falls into coma after a tick bite

Kayla Oblisk/Facebook(LOUISVILLE, Ky.) -- A Kentucky mom says her son was left unconscious after catching a rare and potentially deadly disease from a tick bite.

Kayla Oblisk said her 2-year-old son, Jackson, came down with a case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a rare infectious disease, after being bitten by a tick.

"They just pulled it off and moved right on," Oblisk told ABC affiliate WHAS-TV on Friday. "We didn't think anything else of it at that point."

The family didn’t think much of it at first, but they started to worry when Jackson began running a fever. Oblisk took him to the doctor when she started to notice light pink spots all over his body.

"My kid wouldn't get up, he wouldn't eat he wouldn't drink, he was running a 105 degree fever," Oblisk said. "We couldn't get him to do anything, if you touched him he screamed."

She said someone mentioned that Jackson might have Rocky Mountain spotted fever, but Oblisk said it was too rare to believe. The chance of getting bit by a tick with the bacterial disease is one in 20,000, according to WHAS, but that’s exactly what Jackson had.

The rare disease left young Jackson unconscious for nearly a week. He woke up for the first time on Friday -- his second birthday.

"I'm so glad that as a parent I said to myself, 'Ya know something isn't right,' and followed it," Oblisk said. "Just celebrating the fact that we are almost positive that he is going to be okay."

Oblisk said Jackson is on the mend, but now she’s struggling to pay his medical bills. Her family created a GoFundMe campaign to help with the expenses.

“Guys, Jackson has already passed his out of pocket maximum of $12,500 in the past 4 days,” the campaign said. “Help his parents out any way you can whether you can or can't donate please share.”

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How women are combating loneliness as adults

ABC News(NEW YORK) -- Join a Facebook group, meet moms on the playground, sign up for a class, get involved at church, volunteer -- the tips women hear on how to find friends are endless.

It's just the opposite. Millennials and Gen Z, seemingly the most-connected generations, are suffering from a “loneliness epidemic.”

Generation Z and millennials rated themselves highest on feelings associated with loneliness in a nationwide survey of adults last year by Cigna.

Jenna Kutcher, a marketing entrepreneur with more than 800,000 Instagram followers, showed the difficulty of making deep friendships as adults last October when she posted a photo of herself on a weekend away with two fellow influencers and entrepreneurs, Rachel Hollis and Amy Porterfield.

“I’ll be honest, I don’t have a lot of friends ... wait, what? You thought I had circles upon circles of women showing up for me in my life? Yeah, no,” she captioned the photo. “I actually really struggle with trusting people these days and making friends is awkward.”

Kutcher urged her followers to comment on the post in order to connect and hopefully make friends. Today, more than seven months after the post, women are still commenting, looking for other women to connect with.

Kutcher said she too still struggles with making and maintaining deep friendships, especially after becoming a mom. She gave birth to her first child, a daughter, in December.

"I feel like I'm having to prioritize my time in new ways, which looks like family first, then work, and then with the margin that exists is where we have time for friendships," she said. "I realize this is just a season, but it does make you wonder how many others are navigating the busyness and just in that survival mode making sure that they can keep up the juggling act."

The Goal Digger podcast host said she has found the best friendships are with other people who "get it," whether "it" is work, family or another type of situation.

"I talk to two girlfriends every single day. We all had babies one week apart and we call it 'The Mom Club,'" she said. "We send five-minute long voice notes ... because they are all we have time for these days, but knowing we're in this together is the biggest blessing."

Amy Porterfield, an online marketing trainer who joined Kutcher and Hollis on their trip last year, said the trip taught her to focus on a small group of core friends versus the days back in high school and even college when she had wide circles of friends.

"It all comes back to being vulnerable and open and honest," she said. "I can’t do that with everybody, but I can do it with a committed group of girlfriends."

One of Porterfield's closest friends is Jasmine Star, a photographer and business strategist she met two years ago through work. The two see each other in person only once a month or so, but talk and text daily.

"It wasn’t like, 'The first thing off, let’s be best friends,'" said Star, who stayed in touch with Porterfield via emails and then texts and phone calls. "We got to know each other really slowly over time."

Star said as she has gotten older she has found herself subscribing to the "quarter philosophy" versus the "penny philosophy" of friendship, saying, "I’d rather have four really good friends than 100 friends."

"One of my good childhood friends is planning her baby shower at 39, and she said she realized that if she were to have a baby shower in her late 20s, she would have had three or four times the people," Star said. "She was wondering if this was a reflection of her, but the reality is that everyone is walking a very similar path."

Kutcher agrees, saying, "I think it's easy to assume you're the only one struggling with friendships. It's easy to paint the scene that everyone else has amazing friends and you're the only lonely one, but it's simply not true."

The types of deep friendships Kutcher, Porterfield and Star have turned to are literally good for their health, research shows.

Being lonely or socially isolated may result in health risks "equivalent to those of obesity or smoking up to 15 cigarettes per day," the president of the AARP Foundation told ABC News last month.

Yes, they take time, and yes, they can be awkward at first, but finding true friendships as an adult is doable.

Here are the ways Kutcher, Porterfield and Star say they have made it happen.

1. Connect with someone daily

"If you want connection, you have to connect," Kutcher said. "A lot of times we know what we seek but we aren't seeking it or taking action."

"My favorite thing to do is everyday think of three people that I can connect with and I'll send a voice text saying, 'Hey, no need to respond, just wanted to let you know I was thinking of you today' and then I'll share something special with them," she said. "Challenge yourself today to text three friends, to call someone you miss or put a card in the mail just because."

2. Ease your friendship expectations

While it can be devastating to not immediately hear back from a friend in high school, friendships developed in adulthood don't need to carry that same angst.

"At our age and in this busy time in our lives, there are no expectations," said Porterfield. "I don’t get my feelings hurt if I don’t hear back right away."

"I had one friend who I told I was terrible about returning calls and texts and she texted back, ‘I’m so happy we can be terrible friends together,'" Star said. "It was so empowering."

"It's so important to have friends who understand that we can jump on the phone at 6 a.m. and talk for 10 minutes," she added.

3. Make new friends but keep the old

Just like the Girl Scouts song says, a circle of girlfriends can, and should, include women from all walks of your life.

"I have fostered friendships since childhood and they are part of the five women I am constantly going deep with," said Star. "Three of the women are from my childhood and two are in my industry."

"To have that balance of five women in my life who are so different is so helpful," she said.

4. Send friendship prompts

Porterfield and Star live in far away from each other in California but still manage to know what is happening in each other's lives.

They do it, they say, by sending quick text prompts.

“”I want to hear from you. What's going on?

"I always, 'What’s going on? Give me an update,'" said Porterfield. "And she'll prompt me with, 'I want to hear from you. What's going on?'"

"She may not respond to my text for 24 or 48 hours, but I always know it’s coming," Porterfield added.

5. Skip the small talk

Once you get past the exhausting small talk that usually has to happen to create a friendship, there is no need to bring it out again.

"I'm introverted and small talk kills me, so unless you want to really tell me what's going on in your marriage or that hilarious thing your kid did or the way you feel like you're failing, I just can't feel invested," said Kutcher. "I want friendships where I can show up, just as I am, and share openly and willingly, knowing that I am not alone or being judged."

Porterfield described being willing to be honest and open with a friend as "feeding the soul."

"If you’re not going deep with them, if you’re not talking to them, you’re not feeding your soul like it needs to be fed," she said.

Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


Missouri's last abortion clinic, a Planned Parenthood, has hours left for judge to intervene

Andrei Stanescu/iStock (FILE photo)(ST. LOUIS) -- Hours remain for a judge to make a decision on the fate of Missouri's last abortion clinic.

If Circuit Judge Michael Stelzer does not approve Planned Parenthood's request for a temporary restraining order, the clinic's license will lapse and it will be forced to close Friday night at midnight, making Missouri the first state in the nation without an abortion provider.

With the fate of Missouri's lone Planned Parenthood clinic, its last remaining abortion provider hanging in the balance, demonstrators marched at the St. Louis Gateway Arch and at state government offices in an ongoing fight for abortion rights in the state.

"What do we do? Stand up, fight back!" they chanted Thursday.

State health officials have refused to renew the St. Louis clinic's license until doctors agree to interviews about what Gov. Mike Parson is calling "a series of deficiencies."

The license for the Planned Parenthood clinic, issued by the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services, is set to expire on Friday, and if it is not renewed, the clinic will have to cease operations. On Thursday night, a judge was deciding on whether or not the clinic could stay open.

"It's shame on Missouri politicians and government for weaponizing the licensing and regulatory process to end safe and legal abortion in Missouri," said M'Evie Mead, director of Planned Parenthood Advocates in Missouri. "People should have access to safe, legal abortion in this state."

Planned Parenthood officials announced Tuesday that they were filing a lawsuit for a restraining order to stop the state from closing the clinic, which is located in St. Louis.

The state had asked to interview all seven of the clinic's physicians, Planned Parenthood said Tuesday, but the state would not provide any guidance on what the doctors would be asked during the interviews. Those interviews could lead to the doctors losing their medical licenses or possible criminal prosecution, Planned Parenthood said.

Missouri is one of several states that have passed abortion bans in recent months. Last week, Gov. Parsons signed an abortion ban after 8-weeks of pregnancy, though it has not yet taken effect, and was met with immediate legal challenges.

Less than 24 hours ago, lawmakers in Louisiana passed new abortion restrictions that outlaw the procedure as early as 6 weeks into a pregnancy. On Thursday, the state's governor -- a Democrat -- signed the bill into law. It has not yet gone into effect, and will be challenged in court.

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